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Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Unforgetbale History Of Telangana

                                                                Unforgettable History Of Telangana                 

                                  
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Unforgetbale History Of Telangana: The history of the Telangana movement refers to the political and social conditions under which the Telangana region was merged with Andhra State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh and the subsequent demands to reverse the merger to form a new state of Telangana from united Andhra Pradesh.

TELANGANA STATE SYMBOLS


Telangana state animal: Jinka (deer).
Telangana state bird: Indian Roller or Blue Jay ( Palapitta).
Telangana state flower:
Telangana state food: Tanner's Cassia(Tangedu).
Telangana state tree : Prosopis(Jammi Chettu).
Telangana state fruit: Mango (Mamidi kaaya).
Telangana state river: Godavari.
Telangana state emblem: Kakatiya Kala Thoranam in the middle and Charminar inside it and bordered in green.
Telangana state song : Jaya Jaya Hey Telangana Janani Jaya ketanam.
Telangana state festival: Bathukamma and Bonalu.
Telangana state food: Jonna rotte,Sajja rotte or Sarva pindi.
Telangana state to dance : Perini Shiva thandavam.

What is Telangana famous for?

The cultural hearts of Telangana Hyderabad and Warangal,are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures. Charminar, Qutub Shahi Tombs,Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma palace,Chowmahalla palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district.

DYNASTIES OF TELANGANA


The history of Telangana, located in the Deccan region, includes its governance by many rulers. It was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE), the Telinga Kakatiya Dynasty (1083–1323), the Musunuri Nayaks (1326–1356) the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1509) and Vijayanagara Empire (1509–1529). Later, the Telangana region became part of the Golconda Sultanate (1529–1687).

SATAVAHANA DYNASTY:

The founder of the satavahana dynasty was Simuka.
After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, around the third century BC there arose the first significant kingdom under the Satavahanas from this region.
   The earliest capital of the Satavahanas was Kotalingala and then moved to the other popular capitals like Paithan and Amaravati (Dharanikota) only after two centuries of their rule.   
      However, the first capital was either ignored or brushed aside to give prominence to the later place in coastal Andhra. The coins issued by the Satavahana kings Simuka (BC 231-208), Siri Satavahana, Satakani I, Satasiri, Satakani II, Vasittiputta Pulumayi, Vasittiputta Satakani and their governors were discovered in Kotalingala.
   Numismatic and epigraphic evidence showed that the Satavahanas ruled a larger area of the peninsula, with oceans as borders on three sides. Literature like Gathasaptashati, painting like Ajanta flourished during the Satavahana rule.

CHALUKYA DYNASTY:

The Chalukyas were dominant power in the Deccan during 6th to 8th century AD. And  again during 10th century AD, they regained their power and ruled till 12th century.The Chalukyas who ruled from Badami were the western Chalukyas.
   The one who ruled from Kalyani are referred as Later Western Chalukyas and the Chalukyas of Vengi are known to the historians as the Eastern Chalukyas.Legendary history of the Chalukyas make their origin very controversial.
   The rule of this dynasty is marked an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.

List of chalukya rulers:
 
CHALUKYA OF BADAMI RULED BY
  • Pulakeshin I (543 AD - 566AD)
  • Kirtivarman I (566 AD - 597 AD)
  • Mangalesha (597 AD - 609 AD)
  • Pulakeshin II (609AD - 642 AD)
  • Vikramaditya I (655 AD - 680 AD) Vinayaditya (696 AD - 733 AD)
  • Vikramaditya II (733 AD - 746 AD)
  • Kirtivarman II (746 AD -753 AD)
  • Chalukya of Vengi (Eastern Chalukya) was ruked by Kubja Vishnuvardhana(624 AD - 641 AD) to Vijayaditya VII.
  •   Chalukyas of Kalyani (Western Chalukya) was ruled by Tailapa II(957 AD - 997AD) to Someshwara IV (1184 AD - 1200).

KAKATIYA DYNASTY:

The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu,now known as Warangal.It was eventually conquered by the Delhi Sultanate.
   The demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and a anarchy under alien rules for some time, before the Musunuri Nayaks brought stability to the region.
   The founder of Kakatiya dynasty was Prola II,who established Kakatiya dynasty as sovereign dynasty.
   As per the "Prataparudra Yashobhushanam"written by Vidyanadha,Kakatiyas got their name because they worshipped the goddess called "Kakati".
Kakatiya rulers and their contributions:

  • Betaraja I(1000 AD - 1052 AD),was founded the dynasty. He ruled as feudatory chief of Kalyani chalukyas. He established his capital at Koravi and he succeeded by his son Prolaraja I.
  • Prolaraja I (1052-1076), was ruled as feudatory of Kalyani chalukyas. He was the devotee of Shiva and popularly known as 'Arigajakesari'. He built Kesari Tatakam and got hereditary  rights of Anumakonda Vishaya from Someshwara of Kalyani chalukyas.
  • Betaraja II (1076-1108),was ruled as feudatory of Kalyani chalukyas.He built a huge tank at Anumakonda.
  • Prila II (1110-1158), was the first independent ruler of Kakatiyas.
  • Rudradeva(1158-1195), was a great patron of art literature and authored the 'Nitisara' in Sanskrit.He constructed the majestic Rudreshwara temple in Anumakonda.
  • Mahadeva (1195-1198),was succeeded his brother Rudradeva but ruled only three years. He died while besienging the Yadava capital Devagiri.
  • Ganapathideva (1198-1262), was greatest among all Kakatiya rulers and ruled for a long period. The famous poet Tikkana Somayaji, who was the court poet.He was a great patron of trade and commerce and issued 'Abhya  Sasanam' at  Motupalli port.
  • Rani Rudramadevi (1262-1296), she was the daughter of Ganapati Deva. She was the first woman ruler of Kakatiya dynasty as well as Andhra region.
  • Prataparudra (1296-1323),was the son of Rani Rudramadevi's daughter. According to the Prolaya Nayaka  prataparudra copper plate inscription, prataparudra committed suicide on the banks of river Narmada because he could not tolerate tolerate the humiliation and defeat against the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

MUSUNURI NAYAKS DYNASTIES:

Historians often state that Musunuri Nayaks belonged to the Kamma caste group. However, the modern castes of Andhra region did not originate until the late stages of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Musunuri Nayaks were warrior chieftains in the Kakatiya army, who regained Andhradesa in 1326 from the Delhi Sultanate in the aftermath of the Kakatiya defeat.

THE BAHMANI SULTANATE DYNASTY:

It was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India.
   The empire was established by Turkic general Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah after revolting against the Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah.
    His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate’s southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Hasanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar).
   The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijayanagara Empire to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan.
   The south Indian Emperor Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed.
    After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states: Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Qutb Shahi of Golconda (Hyderabad), Baridshahi of Bidar, Imadshahi of Berar, Adilshahi of Bijapur. They are collectively known as the Deccan Sultanates.

QUTB SHAHI DYNASTY (GOLCONDA SULTANATE):

The Qutb Shahi dynasty (or Golconda Sultanate) was a territory in south India. It was an initially highly Persianate Muslim Turkmens dynasty established in the 16th century that eventually adopted the regional culture of the Deccan (Telugu culture, language and the newly developed Deccani idiom of Urdu). Its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda, in and near the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
    The Golconda sultanate was constantly in conflict with the Adil Shahis and Nizam Shahis. In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate.

SOME MILESTONES IN THE TELANGANA MOVEMENT

•The region, now being called Telangana, was part of the erstwhile Hyderabad state which was merged into the Indian Union on 17 September, 1948.
    Central government appointed a civil servant, M K Vellodi, as the first Chief Minister of Hyderabad state on 26 January 1950. In 1952, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief Minister of Hyderabad state in the first democratic election.
   Andhra was the first state to be carved out (from erstwhile Madras state) on linguistic basis on 1 November, 1953. It had Kurnool town (in Rayalaseema region) as its capital after the death of Potti Sriramulu who sat on a 53-day fast-unto-death demanding the new state.

The proposal for amalgamation of Hyderabad state with Andhra state came up in 1953 and the then Chief Minister of Hyderabad state, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, supported the Congress central leadership’s decision in this regard though there was opposition in Telangana region.

Accepting the merger proposal, Andhra assembly passed a resolution on November 25, 1955 promising to safeguard the interests of Telangana.

An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on February 20, 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. A “Gentlemen’s Agreement” was then signed by Bezawada Gopala Reddy and Burgula Ramakrishna Rao to the effect.

Eventually, under the States Re-organisation Act, Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad state were merged with Andhra state, giving birth to the state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November, 1956.

The city of Hyderabad, the then capital of Hyderabad state, was made the capital of Andhra Pradesh state.

In 1969, an agitation began in Telangana region as people protested the failure to implement the Gentlemen’s Agreement and other safeguards properly.

Marri Channa Reddy launched the Telangana Praja Samiti espousing the cause of a separate state. The agitation intensified and turned violent with students in the forefront of the struggle and about 300 of them were killed in violence and police firing that ensued.

Following several rounds of talks with leaders of the two regions, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi came up with an eight-point plan on April 12, 1969. Telangana leaders rejected the plan and protests continued under the aegis of Telangana Praja Samiti.

In 1972, Jai Andhra movement started in Andhra-Rayalaseema regions as a counter to Telangana struggle.

On September 21, 1973, a political settlement was reached with the Centre and a 6-point formula put in place to placate people of the two regions.

In 1985, employees from Telangana region cried foul over appointments in government departments and complained about ‘injustice’ done to people of the region.

The then Telugu Desam Party government, headed by N T Rama Rao, brought out a Government Order to safeguard the interests of Telangana people in government employment.

Till 1999, there was no demand from any quarters for division of the state on regional lines.

In 1999, Congress demanded creation of Telangana state. Congress was then smarting under crushing defeats in successive elections to the state Assembly and Parliament with the ruling Telugu Desam Party in an unassailable position.
Launched Telangana Rashtra Samithi by KCR
Yet another chapter opened in the struggle for Telangana when Kalvakuntla Chandrasekhar Rao, who was seething over denial of Cabinet berth in the Chandrababu Naidu government, walked out of TDP and launched Telangana Rashtra Samiti on 27 April, 2001.

Following pressure applied by Telangana Congress leaders, the Central Working Committee of Congress in 2001 sent a resolution to the then NDA government seeking constitution of a second States Re-organisation Commission to look into Telangana state demand, which was rejected by the then Union Home Minister L K Advani saying smaller states were “neither viable nor conducive” to integrity of the country.

TRS started gradually building the movement for a separate state.

Congress forged an electoral alliance with TRS by promising to create Telangana state.

Congress came to power in 2004, both in the state and at the Centre, and TRS became part of the coalition governments at both places.

Protesting delay in carving out the separate state, TRS quit the coalition governments in the state and at the Centre in December 2006 and continued an independent fight.

In October 2008, TDP changed its stance and declared support for bifurcation of the state.

TRS launched an indefinite hunger-strike on 29 November, 2009 demanding creation of Telangana. The Centre budged and came out with an announcement on 9 December, 2009 that it was "initiating the process for formation of Telangana state".

But the Centre announced on 23 December, 2009 that it was putting Telangana issue on hold. This fanned protests across Telangana with some students ending their lives for a separate state.

The Centre then constituted a five-member Committee on 3 February, 2010, headed by former judge Srikrishna, to look into statehood demand. The Committee submitted its report to the Centre on 30 December, 2010.

Telagana region witnessed a series of agitations like the Million March, Chalo Assembly and Sakalajanula Samme (general strike) in 2011-12 while MLAs belonging to different parties quit from the House.

With its MPs from Telangana upping the ante, Congress made Union Home Ministry to convene an all-party meeting on December 28, 2012 to find an “amicable solution” to the crisis.

Telangana freedom fighters:
  • Chityala Ailamma(chakali Ailamma), revolutionary leader.
  • Komaram Bheem, 20th-century freedom fighter.
  • Suddala hanumanthu, freedom fighter, writer, balladeer.
  • Kothapalli Jayashankar, political activist and academic. 
  • Konda Laxman Bapuji, father of Telangana
  • Kaloji Narayana Rao,  freedom fighter, Anti-fascist and political activist  of Telangana.

CONCLUSION:After years of struggle, and several rounds of agitation, Telangana is set to come into being — as the 29th State of India.

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