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Thursday, September 17, 2020

Top 10 Best universities In the World

                          Top 10 Best universities In the World

                                                                       
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Top 10 Best universities In the World: University rankings can be highly influential. They can help prospective students to narrow down their choice of institution and, of course, they also give universities something to brag about.

HOW ARE UNIVERSITY RANKS CALCULATED


In the rankings, the research influence of a university is measured by the number of times that work by an academic at that university is cited by another scholar. ... This contribution is a both a measure of quality at a university, and a source of pride for both academics and students.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS


There are multiple world university rankings available – with the best-known being the QS World University Rankings , Times Higher Education(THE) World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) – and each one uses a different methodology. This can sometimes be confusing, as it’s not always easy to see why a university is ranked differently, or why the order within a country changes depending on which table you view.

To clarify how these different outcomes are reached, below is an overview of the methodologies used for these three major world university rankings…

QS WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS



The QS World University Rankings assesses universities on six performance indicators, relating to research, teaching, employability and internationalization. To be eligible for inclusion, institutions must teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, and conduct work in at least two of five broad faculty areas (arts and humanities; engineering and technology; social sciences and management; natural sciences; life sciences and medicine).

Academic reputation (worth 40% of the overall score)
Based on a global survey of academics, who are asked to identify the leading institutions in their field.

Employer reputation (10%)
Based on a global survey of graduate employers, who are asked to identify the institutions producing the best graduates in their sector.

Student-to-faculty ratio (20%)
An indication of commitment to high-quality teaching and support.

Research citations per faculty member (20%)
This is normalized by subject area, and reflects the impact of an institution’s research.

Proportion of international faculty (5%)
A measure of an institution’s success in attracting faculty from overseas.

Proportion of international students (5%)
A measure of an institution’s success in attracting students from overseas.

The interactive results table can be filtered to show the scores for each of these six indicators, showing where each institution’s comparative strengths and weaknesses lie. You can find out more about the QS World University Rankings methodology here.

TIMES HIGHER EDUCATION(THE) WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings uses 13 performance indicators, grouped into five categories. Institutions are excluded if they do not teach at undergraduate level, or if their research output is below a certain threshold.

Teaching (worth 30% of the overall score)
Based on a reputation survey (15%), staff-to-student ratio (4.5%), doctorate-to-bachelor’s ratio (2.25%), doctorates-awarded-to-academic-staff ratio (6%) and institutional income (2.25%).

Research (30%)
Based on a reputation survey (18%), research income (6%) and research papers published per faculty member (6%).

Research citations (30%)
Based on the number of citations a university’s research obtains, normalized by subject area.

International outlook (7.5%)
Based on international-to-domestic-student ratio (2.5%), international-to-domestic-staff ratio (2.5%) and international research collaborations (2.5%).

Industry income (2.5%)
Based on income earned from industry, relative to the number of academic staff employed, and adjusted for PPP.

The published results can be sorted to show universities’ scores for each of the five categories, but not for the individual indicators within each category.

ACADEMIC RANKING OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES (ARWU)

Also widely known as the Shanghai Ranking, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) assesses six performance indicators, all relating to research excellence. The ranking considers all institutions with Nobel Laureates, Fields Medalists, highly cited researchers, papers published in Nature or Science, or a significant number of papers indexed by the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) or Social Science Citation Index (SSCI).

Alumni (worth 10% of the overall score)
Based on the number of alumni of an institution who have won Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals, with greater weight given to more recent recipients.

Awards (20%)
Based on the number of staff affiliated with an institution who have won Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry, medicine and economics, and Fields Medals in mathematics, with greater weight given to more recent recipients.

Highly cited researchers (20%)
Based on an institution’s number of highly cited researchers, according to the latest list published by Thomson Reuters.

Papers in Nature and Science (20%)
Based on the number of papers published in these two influential journals, drawing on a four-year period. For institutions specialized in social sciences and humanities, this category does not apply.

Papers indexed (20%)
Based on the number of papers indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in the preceding calendar year, with a double weighting for papers indexed in the Social Science Citation Index.

Per capita performance (10%)
The weighted scores of the other indicators, divided by the number of full-time equivalent academic staff.

COMPARING WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS:

Read on for a closer look at the top 10 from each of these major world university rankings, and the key similarities and differences between them.

QS WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS:

1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT):

Location: United States
Rank in 2020: 1
Rank in 2019: 1

2. Stanford University:

Location: United States
Rank in 2020: 2
Rank in 2019: 2

3. Harvard University:

Location: United States
Rank in 2020: 3
Rank in 2019: 3

4. University of Oxford:

Location: United  Kingdom
Rank in 2020: 4
Rank in 2019: 5

5. California institute of technology:
 
  Location: United States
Rank in 2020: 5
Rank in 2019: 4

6. ETH Zurich (Swiss federal institute of technology):

Location: Switzerland
Rank in 2020: 6
Rank in 2019: 7

7. University of Cambridge (United Kingdom):

Location: United  Kingdom
Rank in 2020: 7
Rank in 2019: 6

8. UCL(University College London):


Location: United  Kingdom
Rank in 2020: 8
Rank in 2019: 10

9. Imperial college London:

Location: United  Kingdom
Rank in 2020: 9
Rank in 2019: 8

10. University of Chicago:

Location: United States
Rank in 2020: 10
Rank in 2019: 9

TIMES HIGHER EDUCATION (THE) WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS 2020

  • RANK 1: University of Oxford University (United Kingdom)
  • RANK 2: California institute of technology (United States)
  • RANK 3: University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  • RANK 4: Stanford University (United States)
  • RANK 5: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
  • RANK 6: Princeton University (United States)
  • RANK 7: Harvard University (United States)
  • RANK 8: Yale University (United States)
  • RANK 9: University of Chicago (United States)
  • RANK 10: Imperial college London (United Kingdom)

ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK)

The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world’s second oldest surviving university. While its exact founding date is unknown, there is evidence that teaching took place as far back as 1096.

Located in and around Oxford’s medieval city centre, the university comprises 44 colleges and halls, and over 100 libraries, making it the largest library system in the UK.

Students number around 22,000 in total, just over half of whom are undergraduates while over 40 per cent are international, representing 140 countries between them.

Called the 'city of dreaming spires' by Victorian poet, Matthew Arnold, Oxford has the youngest population of any city in England and Wales: nearly a quarter of its residents are university students, which gives Oxford a noticeable buzz.

Oxford has an alumni network of over 250,000 individuals, including more than 120 Olympic medallists, 26 Nobel Prize winners, seven poets laureate, and over 30 modern world leaders (Bill Clinton, Aung San Suu Kyi, Indira Ghandi and 26 UK Prime Ministers, among them).

The university is associated with 11 winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, five in physics and 16 in medicine. Notable Oxford thinkers and scientists include Tim Berners-Lee, Stephen Hawking and Richard Dawkins. The actors Hugh Grant and Rosamund Pike also went to Oxford, as did the writers Oscar Wilde, Graham Greene, Vikram Seth and Philip Pullman.

As a modern, research-driven university, Oxford has numerous strengths but cites particular prowess in the sciences, having recently ranked number one in the world for medicine (if its Medical Sciences division was a university in its own right, it would be the fourth largest in the UK) and among the top ten universities globally for life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, and the arts and humanities.


ABOUT MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(MIT)

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is an independent, coeducational, private research university based in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Established in 1861, MIT aims to ‘further knowledge and prepare students in science, technology and other fields of study that will best benefit the nation and the world today’. Its motto is Mens et Manus, which translates as “Mind and Hand”.

The university lays claim to 85 Nobel Laureates, 58 National Medal of Science winners, 29 National Medal of Technology and Innovation winners and 45 MacArthur Fellows. Among its impressive alumni is Kofi Annan, former secretary-general of the United Nations.

Scientific discoveries and technological advances accredited to MIT include the first chemical synthesis of penicillin, the development of radar, the discovery of quarks, and the invention of magnetic core memory, which enabled the development of digital computers.

MIT is currently organised into five different schools: architecture and planning, engineering, humanities, arts and social sciences, management and science.

It is home to around 1,000 faculty members and over 11,000 undergraduate and graduate students. MIT’s current areas of research include digital learning, sustainable energy, Big Data, human health and much more.


MIT estimates that all its living alumni have between them launched more than 30,000 active companies, created 4.6 million jobs and generated roughly $1.9 trillion in annual revenue.

Taken together, this ‘MIT Nation’ is equivalent, they say, to the 10th-largest economy in the world.

ABOUT STANFORD UNIVERSITY


Located in the heart of Silicon Valley, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Jane and Leland Stanford, “to promote the public welfare by exercising an influence in behalf of humanity and civilization.” Since opening in 1891, Stanford's faculty and students have worked to improve the health and wellbeing of people around the world through the discovery and application of knowledge. Breakthroughs at Stanford include the first successful heart-lung transplant, the debut of the computer mouse, and the development of digital music.

Situated on 8,180 acres, Stanford is one of the largest campuses in the United States with 18 interdisciplinary research institutes and seven schools on a single campus: Graduate School of Business; School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences; Graduate School of Education; School of Engineering; School of Humanities and Sciences; Law School; and School of Medicine.

Stanford has more than 16,300 students, 2,180 faculty and 1,800 postdoctoral scholars. Stanford is an international institution, enrolling students from all 50 U.S. states and more than 90 other countries. It is also an athletics powerhouse with 900 current student-athletes and a history of 137 national championships and 23 consecutive Directors’ Cups, awarded to the top intercollegiate athletics program in the nation.

ABOUT HARVARD UNIVERSITY
Established in 1636, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States.

Harvard University is devoted to excellence in teaching, learning, and research, and to developing leaders in many disciplines who make a difference globally.

The University, which is based in Cambridge and Boston, Massachusetts, has an enrollment of over 20,000 degree candidates, including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. Harvard has more than 360,000 alumni around the world.

Harvard faculty are engaged with teaching and research to push the boundaries of human knowledge. For students who are excited to investigate the biggest issues of the 21st century, Harvard offers an unparalleled student experience and a generous financial aid program with over  $160 million awarded to more than 60 percentage of our undergraduate students.

The University has 12 degree- granting schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced study, offering a truly global education.

ABOUT UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Founded in 1209, the University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research institution. Its 800-year history makes it the fourth-oldest surviving university in the world and the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world.

Cambridge serves more than 18,000 students from all cultures and corners of the world. Nearly 4,000 of its students are international and hail from over 120 different countries. In addition, the university’s International Summer Schools offer 150 courses to students from more than 50 countries

The university is split into 31 autonomous colleges where students receive small group teaching sessions known as college supervisions.

Six schools are spread across the university’s colleges, housing roughly 150 faculties and other institutions. The six schools are: Arts and Humanities, Biological Sciences, Clinical Medicine, Humanities and Social Sciences, Physical Sciences and Technology.

In total, 92 affiliates of the university have been awarded Nobel Prizes, covering every category.

The university’s endowment is valued at nearly £6 billion.

ABOUT CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

The California Institute of Technology (Caltech) is a world-renowned science and engineering research and education institution, where extraordinary faculty and students seek answers to complex questions, discover new knowledge, lead innovation, and transform the future.

Caltech has six academic divisions with a strong emphasis in science and technology teaching and research. The university has a competitive admissions process ensuring that only a small number of the most gifted students are admitted.

Caltech has a high research output and alongside many high-quality facilities, both on campus and globally. This includes the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Caltech Seismological Laboratory and the International Observatory Network.

The alumni and faculty of Caltech have been awarded 39 Nobel Prizes, one Fields Medal, six Turing Awards and 71 United States National Medal of Science or Technology. Four chief scientists of the US Air Force have also attended the institution.

ABOUT ETH ZURICH (FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY)

ETH university for science and technology dates back to the year 1855, when the founders of modern-day Switzerland created it as a centre of innovation and knowledge. The successful combination of cosmopolitanism and strong connections at national level transformed the fledgling educational institution into one of the driving forces behind Swiss industrialisation.

More than 400 professors teach and conduct research in the areas of engineering, architecture, mathematics, natural sciences, system-oriented sciences, and management and social sciences.

The institute has produced over 20 Nobel Prize Laureates, including the father of modern physics and the inventor of the general theory of relativity Albert Einstein.

With 16 departments that conduct solid academic interdisciplinary research in subjects ranging from architecture and biology to chemistry and physics, the university makes a notable contribution to the global science and technology industry.

ABOUT IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON

Imperial College London, a science-based institution based in the centre of the capital, is regarded as one of the UK’s leading institutions.

The college has around 15,000 students and 8,000 staff, with a focus on four main areas: science, engineering, medicine and business

Imperial was granted its charter in 1907, merging the Royal College of Science, the Royal School of Mines and the City & Guilds College.

The institution boasts 14 Nobel Prize winners, including Sir Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin.


CONCLUSION: While it can be difficult to choose between the universities, you will find that there are some key differences between them that can help you make the big decision.
The most important thing is to determine what sort of character and focus the university has and ensure that it aligns with your own personality, interests and goals.
  Every university has its own persona, and here we give you some tips to ensure that you choose one that is the best fit for you.

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