Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Mahatma Gandhi Biography

                             Mahatma Gandhi Biography



Mahatma Gandhi was a Indian lawyer,political ethicist,nationalist and anti-colonial. He was a great freedom fighter and is called as father of the nation. His full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Other names of Mahatma Gandhi are Bapuji,Gandhiji,  Jaati pita, M.K Gandhi.He was the past president of Indian National Congress (1924 - 1925).


Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2nd 1869 at Porbandar ,Gujarat ,India and died on 30 January 1948.
FATHER: Karamchand Gandhi

MOTHER: Putlibai Gandhi

WIFE : Kasturba Gandhi


1. Harilal Mohandas Gandhi (23rd August 1888 - 18 June 1948 ),he was the first and eldest son of Mahatma Gandhi.

2. Manilal Mohandas Gandhi (28 October 1892 - 5th April 1956),he was the second son of Mahatma

3. Ramdas Mohandas Gandhi (2nd January 1897 - 14th April 1969),he was the third son of Mahatma

4. Devdas Mohandas Gandhi (22nd May 1902- 3rd August 1957),he was the fourth and youngest son of Mahatma Gandhi.


Mahatma Gandhi went to England to study law and work as a barrister in South Africa.That time,the white people ruled South Africa. Many Indians also worked in South Africa .The White behaved very badly with Indians also. Indians were denied the civil liberties and political rights. Seeing the condition of Indians, Gandhiji started a movement called 'Satyagrah'.

Gandhiji threw himself into the struggle for elementary rights for Indians.He suffered imprisonment many times.Then he adopted a unique method of struggle called 'Satyagrah' for Indian rights. After staying for 20 years in South Africa,Gandhiji returned to India with his unique method of Satyagrah. He studied the conditions of Indians. He became very unhappy seeing the poverty in the country.He also found people being extremely exploited and tortured by the British. So, he adopted simple life and started to oppose the British rule.He  applied his unique method of 'Satyagrah' based on non violence and played the most vital role in the freedom struggle.Gandhiji always applied his principles of truth and non violence and courage throughout his life.


The 20th century witnessed unprecedented growth of science and technology, both in the service and in the destruction of humanity. It also turned out to be the most violent period in human history. Predictably and hopefully,with the growth of violence also began the search for nonviolent capabilities by motivated souls in different parts of the globe.

A conscious search for nonviolent alternatives began in 20th century with Gandhi who inspired men and women in different degrees in different parts of the world. Martin Luther King, Jr, is considered to have been the pioneer in the American continent in adopting the Gandhian strategies, which ultimately changed the course of American history besides altering the policy and practice of racism not only in the U.S. but in Africa as well.


Gandhiji tried to remove social evils like untouchability.He worked for the the unity of the Indians to protest against the British. Soon he started applying his non- violent Satyagrah to various local struggles to unite the people. He fought for the rights of the Indigo farmers of Bihar, the peasants of Gujarat and the textile workers of Ahmedabad. His method of non-violent Satyagrah become successful and inspired the whole nation. Gandhiji emerged as a moral force in the country.

In the meantime, the First World War ended in the victory of England. The British made severe laws against the Indians. They empowered the police to arrest and imprison any Indian without trial.Gandhiji took this as an open challenge. The political leaders of various groups also rested their faith in Gandhiji.

Gandhiji responded to it by launching Satyagrah on a large-scale against the British. The Indians organised the first-ever all India strike on 6th April, 1919,under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.



The Champaran Movement in 1917 was the first Satyagraha movement inspired by Gandhi and a major revolt in the Indian Independence Movement. Farmers of Bihar were protesting against the farming of indigo with barely any payment for it. The farmers oppressed Mahatma Gandhi when he returned to India from Sout Africa in 1915. They wanted Mahatma Gandhi to use the same methods that he had used in South Africa to organize mass uprisings by people to protest against injustice.

Champaran Movement is the first popular movement which gave direction to India's youth and freedom fighters.


It was the third Satyagrah movement after Champaran movement and Ahmedabad mill strike.
The Kheda peasant struggle is also known as no-tax peasant struggle. It was a satyagraha launched in March 1919 under the leadership of Gandhiji, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indulal Yajnik, N.M. Joshi, Shankerlal Pareekh and several others. It was again an experiment, quite like that of Champaran, made on non-violence.


The khilafat movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi along with Shaukat Ali and his brother. He launched this movement to help Muslims to restore their Khalifa in Ottoman Turkey. Gandhi Ji's intention was also to unite Muslims And Hindus by helping Muslims so that swaraj in India can be attained.
  The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved towards secularism


The Non-cooperation movement was launched on 1 August 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi. Following the Rowlatt Act of 17 March 1919, and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 13 April 1919, Indian National Congress withdrew its support for British reforms. Mahatma Gandhi launches the Non-cooperation movement with the aim of self-governance and obtaining full independence. His main motive was to establish non-cooperation, non-violence and made this non-violent movement as his weapons against Britishers.

The non-coperation has two aspects, i.e, one relating to the struggle and the other relating to the norms of condut and construtive work.
gandhi ji proposedthat the movement should unfold in the following stages:
(1) surrender of titles, honours and honorary posts,
(2) boycott of legislative council.
(3) boycott of law courts by the lawyers.
(4) boycott of government school and colleges,and withdrawl of children of these school and college
(5) boycott pf british goods.


Gandhi's plan was to begin civil disobedience with a satyagraha aimed at the British salt tax. The 1882 Salt Act gave the British a monopoly on the collection and manufacture of salt, limiting its handling to government salt depots and levying a salt tax. Violation of the Salt Act was a criminal offence.
The British government did not permit people to make Salt from seawater. Gandhiji decided to break this law himself therefore he left Sabarmati ashram with Sarojini Naidu and other ashram members for Dandi.He broke the salt law by making some salt from seawater.The people including teenagers,women ,farmers and workers joined in the movement.The British adopted severe measures to destroy the movrment. Many people were badly beaten. Several thousands of people were arrested and many leaders including Gandhiji were arrested and put in prison.


the Congress launched another mass movement on 8 August,1942 against the British.Gandhiji named it 'Quit India'. He asked all the Indians to 'Do or Die'. The movement spread all over the country.Many leaders including Gandhiji were arrested.The British government tried to prevent the moment, but people responded to Gandhiji's call, 'Do or Die' with great efforts.


1. "You must be the change you wish to see in the world"
2. "The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of strong".
3."the best way to find yourself ID to loss yourself in the service of others".
4."an eye for eye only ends up making the whole World blind"
5."strength does not come from physical capacity; It comes from an indomitable will"
6. "A man is but the product of his thoughts; what he thinks, he becomes"
7."freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes"


Some famous books was written by Gandhiji are:

1. The story of my experiments with truth--An Autobiography.

2. Truth is God

3. Hind Swaraj or Indian home rule.

4.  key to health.

5. India of my dreams

6.  village Swaraj.


The 'Gandhi peace award' is an award and cash prize presented annually since 1960 by 'Promoting enduring peace' to individuals for "contributions made in the promotion of international peace and good will." It is named in honor of Gandhiji. but has no personal connection to Mohandas Gandhi or any member of his family.


Gandhiji  felt it was his responsibility to fight for India's rights. Mahatma Gandhi was important because he led India into freedom from the British. Also, he influenced many people and places other than India. He changed history by protesting non-violently and gaining independence for India.

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