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Thursday, September 10, 2020

First Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru Biography

              First Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru Biography

                                                       
                                                                               
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First Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru Biography: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU was an Indian Independence activitist and subsequently, the first Prime Minister of India, it will act as a central figure in Indian  politics before and after the independence. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement serving India  as prime minister from independent Nation.

Jawaharlal Nehru BIRTH AND FAMILY:


Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14th November 1889 in Allahabad in British India.. Jawaharlal Nehru was the eldest of 3 children where two of whom were girls.
Krishna Hutheesingh, Vijayalakshmi (later became the first female President of the United Nations general assembly) was the sisters of Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru mother's name is Swarup Rani Nehru  and his father's name is Motilal Nehru.

OTHER NAMES:

  • Chacha Nehru.
  • Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Pandit Nehru.
  • Uncle Nehru.

EDUCATION:

Nehru was a voracious reader during his  childhood itself,  Nehru was equipped with diverse knowledge. His primary education was at his home only where tutors  came to his house and took classes. At the age of 15 itself,Nehru went to England for his schooling. At the the age of 17, Nehru joined Trinity College,Cambridge in October 1907. Nehru directly joined Indian politics. He was always interested in in analysing International issues and was intrigued by the history countries that were under foreign domination.

POLITICAL AWAKENING:


*JOINED ALL INDIA HOME RULE LEAGUE:  Upon learning of esteemed theosophist Annie Besant’s arrest in 1917, Nehru was moved to join the All India Home Rule League, an organization devoted to obtaining self-government within the British Empire.

 *JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE:The Massacre of Amritsar, in which hundreds of Indians were killed and more than a thousand others were wounded, outraged Nehru and further solidified his resolve to win India’s independence.

*DURING THE NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT (1920-22) led by Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was imprisoned for the first time for activities against the British government and, over the course of the next two and a half decades, spent a total of nine years in jail.

*PRESIDENT OF INC:In 1929, Jawaharlal was elected president of the Indian National Congress—his first leadership role in politics—whereby he promoted the goal of complete independence from Britain as opposed to dominion status.

*PARTICIPATION IN INDIVIDUAL SATYAGRAHA:To protest against the participation of India in World war 2 without consulting Indian leaders and confusion created by the August offer,the individual satyagraha was launched not to seek independence but to affirm the right to speech. Pt. Nehru was chosen as the second satyagrahi in this movement after Vinoba Bhave.

 *QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT:The members of Congress passed the Quit India resolution on August 8, 1942, demanding political freedom from Britain in exchange for support in the war effort. The following day, the British government arrested all Congress leaders, including Nehru and Gandhi.

*ROLE IN FARMING OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION: He was one of the pioneers of the constituent Assembly. He moved the objective Resolution on 13 December 1946, which became the light for our preamble. He was the chairman of the States Committee, Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.

CHALLENGES AND LEGACY AS PM:


On August 15, 1947, India finally gained its independence and Nehru became the nation’s first prime minister.

NEHRU: FOR AND AGAINST:

    Never before in Indian political discourse  has Jawaharlal Nehru- and his idea- been so pilloried or celebrated depending on which side of the faultline you are on.On 128th birth anniversary Indian Express captures the debate around the man and his legacy.

CONTRIBUTION OF NEHRU TO THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE OF INDIA:

He became an active leader in the freedom struggle of India.Being a true follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he had actively participated in all the movements that Mahatma Gandhi initiated against the British government.
    Pandit Nehru along with Subhas Chandra Bose brought the idea of Complete Independence Declaration or Purn Swaraj on 19th December 1929.
    Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru went to Belgium in 1927 to represent India through the Indian National Congress in a meeting called co-ordinate and plan a common struggle against imperialism. There he talked about India and Indian’s condition under the British Governmet.The result of his this work was very much visible at that time. India received the sympathy of many countries and this put a moral pressure on British.

NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT:

After the second world war the world was divided into to major military blocks.One block was the United States and its allies like Britain,Germany, France, Japan etc. The other block was the USSR(now Russia) and its allies like East Germany, China, Hungary etc. The former was called the US block on the the capitalist block while the the latter was called the Russian block or the communist block. Both these blocks looked at each other with doubt and  suspicion and continued to develop weapons against each other. This was called"COLD WAR". India was asked by both blocks to join their sides.
    India has always been known as the land of peace. So our first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru discussed this issue with the president of Yugoslavia, Ghana, Indonesia and Egypt. Many other leaders of small and developing countries met in 1995. They all laid foundation of the"NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT"(NAM) which decided not to tie to any military block.The first conference was held at  Belgrade in 1961.In this conference total of 25 countries took part. At present there are 120 members in it. This Increase in the membership itself tells the story of success of the NAM.

  • The main purpose of NAM are
  •  To promote global peace.
  • To remove poverty, disease, illiteracy.
  •  To develop trade among member nations.
  •  To cooperate with other nations in various fields.

AWARDS:

Jawaharlal Nehru award forinternational understanding ( International civilian award for contribution to the the promotion of international understanding goodwill, and friendship among people of the world.)

BOOKS(by Jawaharlal Nehru):

  • Glimpses of world history.
  • An autobiography.
  • Letters from father to his daughter.
  • The unity of India collected writings.
  • China ,Spain and the war.
  • Selected works of Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • The essential writings.
  • Recent essays and writings on the future on.

INSPIRATIONAL QUOTES:

  • Facts are facts and will not disappear on on account of your likes.
  •  There is nothing more horrifying than stupidity in action.
  •  we live in wonderful world that is full of beauty charm and adventure. There is no end to the the adventure we can have if only we seek them with our eyes open.
  •  Do or Die.
  •  The policy of being too cautious is the the greatest risk of all.
  •  Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit.
  •  Life is like a game of cards the hard that is dealt you is determinism; the way you play it is free will.


CONCLUSION: In International affairs he pursues a policy of strict nonalignment, a difficult course in the cold- war years; his neutralism broke down, however, when he asked for western aid during the Sino-Indian conflict.

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